In computer architecture, multithreading is the ability of a central processing unit (CPU) (or a single core in a multi-core processor) to provide multiple threads of execution concurrently, supported by the operating system. This approach differs from multiprocessing. In a multithreaded application, the threads share the resources of a single or multiple cores, which include the computing units, the CPU caches, and the translation lookaside buffer (TLB).
The multithreading paradigm has become more popular as efforts to further exploit instruction-level parallelism have stalled since the late 1990s. This allowed the concept of throughput computing to re-emerge from the more specialized field of transaction processing.
Example of usage – “Where multiprocessing systems include multiple complete processing units in one or more cores, multithreading aims to increase utilization of a single core by using thread-level parallelism, as well as instruction-level parallelism.”